The patas monkey, scientific name Erythrocebus patas, also referred to as the wadi monkey or hussar monkey, is a ground-dwelling monkey distributed over semi-arid areas of West Africa, and into East Africa.
Patas monkey facts
It was previously considered as a member of the genus Erythrocebus, however, the Blue Nile patas monkey, earlier synonymized with this species, was resurrected in 2018.
Patas monkeys, Erythrocebus patas can run on the bottom at as much as 31 miles (50 kilometers) per hour, and this speed makes them the quickest primate on land.
Patas monkeys have one dominant, fully grownup male per group, which has about 15 members.
The male patas monkey grows to 60 cm (24 in) to 87 cm (34 in) in size, excluding the tail, which measures 75 cm (30 in). Grownup males are significantly bigger than grownup females, which average 49 cm (19 in) in size.
Grownup males average 12.4 kg (27.3 lb) and grownup females 6.5 kg (14.3 lb), displaying an excessive degree of sexual dimorphism. Reaching speeds of 55 km/h (34 mph), it’s the quickest runner among the many primates.
The utmost recorded longevity for a patas monkey in the wild is 21.6 years. Patas monkeys are bodily tailored for all times on the bottom.
Their slender bodies and long limbs are morphologically suited to terrestrial motion and pace reasonably than for arboreal motion
Distribution and habitat
It’s discovered in lots of components of Central, Western, and Southern Africa. It additionally has been found in Puerto Rico. The species avoids dense woodlands and lives in an extensively open tropical savanna.
The patas monkey lives in multi-female teams of as much as 60 primates (though a lot bigger aggregations have been reported). The group comprises only one grownup male for many of the years.
In the course of the breeding season, there are multi-male influxes into the group. As soon as juvenile males attain sexual maturity (across the age of 4 years) they depart the group, normally becoming a member of all-male teams.
The grownup females in the group provoke the motion of the group with the male following their lead.
Variation within the female social construction of patas monkeys has been noticed throughout totally different populations.
This variation could also be depending on meal assets, as the battle between primates is usually a result of competitors for restricted resources as well as influence.
Greater charges of the battle over limited meals, resembling fruit bushes, is related to more secure, nicely outlined dominance hierarchies than habitats with more diffuse assets, resembling bugs.
Variation within the availability of those assets has been related to variation in dominance hierarchies amongst females.
The battle amongst females has additionally been proven the presence of recognition amongst matrilineal relations.
It has been noticed that, shortly after conflicts amongst two females, patas monkeys usually act otherwise towards one another than if they had not been in battle. Females usually “reconcile” with one another by actions resembling sitting collectively and grooming.
Whereas this reconciliatory behavior is noticed even between people of different groups, it’s most typical amongst matrilineal relations.
Dominance has comparatively little impact on the relationship, besides that the alpha-female is the least dominant over females.
Inclination towards matrilineal relations is frequent in different primates as nicely, resembling vervet monkeys.
Mating in patas monkeys is seasonal and happens throughout the wet season.
During times when females should not receptive, comparatively secure teams with one grownup resident male and several other females are in the team.
In the course of the mating season, resident males could also be chased away by invading solitary males.
This normally ends in the formation of multi-male, multi-female teams shortly thereafter, as extra males invade a bunch.
The brand new resident male doesn’t push back subordinate invading males, however reasonably focuses on mating with females.
On the finish of the mating season, one-male, multi-female teams stabilize. One male stays because of the resident male and chases different males away.
In some cases, submissive males are tolerated by the resident male for brief intervals of time; nonetheless, they not often stay within the group for greater than a number of days.
Younger males have been noticed to depart their natal teams anyplace from two to 4 years of age.
Nevertheless, one research confirmed that almost all juveniles left earlier than they have been three, which is earlier than most males attain sexual maturity.
This contrasts with earlier research through which juveniles have been noticed to depart later, at sexual maturity, indicating that there could also be variation between teams. The explanation younger males depart their natal group can be contested.
Dominant males have been noticed to behave aggressively towards youthful males in captivity. Nevertheless, observations of untamed patas monkeys have proven younger males leaving the group through which they have been born with none aggressive behavior from the grownup male.
The juveniles, within the time shortly earlier than they depart, spend more and more much less and less time with the grownup females within the group.
Nevertheless, juvenile males don’t change the period of time they spend close to the grownup male. This will likely point out a weakening of matrilineal ties, reasonably than male aggression, as the principal cause juveniles disperse from their natal group.
Patas monkeys have a number of distinct alarm calls that warn members of the group of predators. Completely different alarm calls are given by totally different group members (i.e. grownup females, grownup males, juveniles, and so on.) and sure alarm calls are distinctive of several types of predators.
Not like different primates, patas monkeys not often take refuge from predators in wood. That is more likely because of the comparatively sparse tree cowl in patas monkey habitats.
Whereas patas monkeys normally run on the bottom away from predators, people have been noticed to assault predators resembling jackals and wildcats. This behavior has been noticed in each male and female.
The patas monkey feeds on bugs, gum, seeds, and tubers, an eating regimen extra attribute of a lot smaller primates.
The International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List of Threatened Species classifies the patas monkey as Least Concern (IUCN, 2008) as a result of patas populations cover a large space and right now should not be thought of endangered.
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