The crab-eating macaque, scientific name Macaca fascicularis, also known as the long-legged macaque, is a cercopithecine primate in Southeast Asia. This is referred to in the laboratory as the cynomolgus monkey.
Besides humans, crab eating macaque or, Macaca fascicularis has a long history; they have been occasionally seen as sacred animals in agricultural pests, some temples, and more recently, the subject of medical tests.
The crab eating macaque or, Macaca fascicularis lives in matrilineal social groups with female dominance classification, and male members leave the group when they reach puberty, and they are documented using opportunistic proxies and feeding equipment in Thailand and Myanmar.
Crab-eating macaques are a threat to invasive species and biodiversity known in several places, including Hong Kong and western New Guinea.
As a result of significant overlap in macaques and human habitats, resources have led to greater habitat loss, synanthropic living, and conflict of resources and interdependence.
The body length of the adult crab eating macaque or, Macaca fascicularis, which varies among subspecies, is 38-55 cm (15-22 inches) with relatively short hands and feet. Males are significantly larger than wives compared to females.
The tail is longer than the body, usually 40–65 cm (16–26 in), which is used to maintain balance when they jump up to 5 meters (16 feet).
The upper parts of the body are dark brown with light golden brown tips. Underparts are light gray with dark gray / brown tail. Crab-eating macaques have crown hairs running backward, sometimes short in the middle line.
Skin of the crab eating macaque or, Macaca fascicularis is black on their feet and ears, while the skin on the skin is of a light gray pink color. The eyelids often have prominent white marks and sometimes white spots on the ears. Men have characteristic sore throat and cheek whiskers, while females have only cheek whiskers.
Crab eating macaque or, Macaca fascicularis have cheekbones that they use to store food while grazing. The female shows no perineal abscess.
The crab eating macaque or, Macaca fascicularis lives in social groups that have three to 20 females, their offspring and one or more males. Groups usually have fewer males than females. In the social groups of macaques, a clear dominance classification is seen among women.
These ranks remain stable throughout the lifespan of a woman and can be sustained through the generation of matralin. Women crab eating macaque or, Macaca fascicularis have the highest birth rates by the age of 10, and by the age of 24, they have stopped puberty completely.
The social groups in Makkah are female-bound, meaning that men will spread during adolescence. Thus, group correlations were less likely to be observed on average than with matrolin.
Further differences are seen in how high-ranking ancestry is associated with comparing low-ranking ancestry, with high-ranking individuals being more closely related to one another.
Furthermore, groups of men born in the same social group are sometimes seen as brothers and at other times appear to be unrelated.
In addition to the matrimonial dominance classification, male crab eating macaque or, Macaca fascicularis dominance rankings also exist. Alpha males have a higher frequency of mating than their low-level conspiracy.
The increased success is partly due to its access to wives and the choice of an alpha male’s female during the most fertile period.
Although alpha males have a preference for wives, they display deceptive behavior. Through this behavior, women help to bring a nonprofit offspring back, yet benefit from aggressive behavior in two specific ways.
First, a reduced value is placed on a single population. Furthermore, the uncertainty of paternity reduces the risk of infanticide.
Increasing the size of the group increases the competition and energy expended to feed resources and especially food.
Furthermore, social tensions are created and tension-reducing interactions, such as social grooming, fall with larger groups. Thus, group living is maintained only because of protection against predation.
After 1–2–3 days of gestation, the woman crab eating macaque or, Macaca fascicularis gives birth to a baby. The weight of the baby at birth is about 320 grams (11 oz). Children are born with black wool that will begin to turn yellow-green, gray-green or reddish-brown in shades (depending on subspecies) after about three months of age.
This natal coat can indicate the baby’s status to others, and members of other groups treat their children carefully and rush to their defense when disturbed.
Migrant men sometimes kill children without their own, and high-level women sometimes abduct children of low-level women. This abduction can cause the death of infants Other women are usually not weaned.
A young teenager is basically with his mother and relatives. As male adolescents grow older, they become more peripheral to this group. Here they play together, forming important bonds that can help them when leaving their maternity group.
Men who emigrate with a partner are more successful than leaving alone. Young women remain with this group and mix in the matralin in which they are born.
Men’s crabs eating mascara are hungry to increase their chance of sexual intercourse. A woman is more likely to engage in sexual acts with a man who has been created by her than a woman who has not been created recently.
Despite their name, crabs that eat crab generally do not consume crab as their main food source; Instead, they are eating opportunistic parasites, different animals and plants. Although fruits and seeds account for 60 – 90% of their diet, they also eat leaves, flowers, roots, and bark.
They are sometimes poisoned (including birds, nesting birds, ticks, frogs and fish), exotic and bird eggs. In Indonesia, the species has become a skilled swimmer and diver for crabs and other crustaceans in the mangrove wetlands.
A survey of booked Timah in Singapore recorded 44% of fruits, 27% of animal products, 15% of flowers and other plants and 14% of people who feed a diet.
This species exhibits a particularly low tolerance to seed consumption. Despite being unable to digest the seeds, many primates of the same size consume large seeds up to 25 mm (0.98 in) and only repel their whole.
The shrimp-eating macaque, although the seeds are larger than 3-4 mm (0.12-0.16 inches), sprinkle it. This decision to spit the seeds is considered adaptable; It avoids the monkey’s stomach filling by wasteful seeds that cannot be used for energy.
It can also help plants by distributing seeds in new areas: crab-eating mussels eat durians like Durio crevollens and de gibethinus, and are the main seeds for later species. Spreads
Although the species is well-adapted to the ecosystem and there is no risk in its native range for the stability of the population of the prey species, in areas where crab eating is not endemic, it may pose a significant threat to biodiversity.
Some believe that eating crabs is responsible for the extinction of forest birds by feeding endangered forest birds eggs and rats, as well as threatening the macaque critical breeding area.
Crab-eating macaques may turn into synaphrops, away from human resources. They are known to feed young dried rice, cassava leaves, rubber fruits, coconut trees, coconut, mango and other crops on cultivated land, which often do significant harm to local farmers.
In villages, towns, and cities, they frequently take food from garbage cans and refuse piles. The species can become human-aware in these situations, in which macaques can receive food directly from humans, inactive and aggressively.
Use of equipment
In Thailand and Myanmar, crab-eating macaques use stone tools to uncover almonds, oysters and other bivalves, and a variety of marine snails (narrite, muricid, trochid, etc.) on the Andaman coast and coastal islands.
Another example of the use of tools is to wash and rub foods such as sweet potatoes, cassava roots, and papaya leaves before eating.
Crabs that eat crabs either soak these foods in water or rub them with their hands to make them clean.
They release sweet potato peppers using their incisors and Kaine teeth. Elderly people are observed to achieve these behaviors by observant older persons.
Distribution and Accommodation
The crab-eating macaques live in various habitats, including the primary lowland rainforest, disturbed and marginal rainfall, shrubs and coastal forests of Napa Palm and Mangrove. These easily adjust to human settlements.
Some of these are considered sacred in Hindu temples and some on smaller islands but they are pests around farms and villages.
Generally, they prefer disturbed habitats and a range of forestry. The native ranges of this species cover much of mainland Southeast Asia, from south-southeast Bangladesh through Malaysia and the Maritime Southeast Asia Islands, the Philippine Islands and the Nicobar Islands Bay. This primate is a rare example of earthworm mammals that violate the Wallace Line.
Crab-eating macaque is a foreign species originating in several countries, including Hong Kong, Taiwan, Irish Jia, Papua New Guinea, New Britain, New Ireland, New Caledonia, Solomon Islands, Fiji, Tonga, Samoa, Nauru, Vanuatu, Pohnpei, and Mauritius.
It has led the International Union for Conservation of Nature’s invasive species specialist group to list crab-eating macaques as “100 of the world’s worst invasive alien species”.  In Mauritius, it is a threat to the local and endangered Russia Simplex, as it destroys its flowers.
Crab-eating macaques have the third largest range of any primate species, just behind humans and rhesus macaques. The IUCN Red List classifies species such as at least Concern and CITES as their Appendix II (“There is no danger of extinction”, where they must control trade to avoid useless with survival).
A recent review of their population suggests the need for better surveillance of populations due to the increasing levels of wild trade and human-macaque conflicts, which are decreasing overall population levels despite the species being widely distributed.
Each subspecies faces different levels of threat, and very little information is available on some subspecies to determine their status.
M. F. The Ombrosa subspecies is likely to be of significant biological significance and has been recommended as a candidate for protection of the Nicobar Islands, where its small, local population is severely fragmented, and IUCN is listed as weak on the Red List.
The long-legged macaque of the Philippines (M.F. Philippines) is listed as a near threat, and m. F. Condorciones are weak. All other subspecies are listed as deficient in data and require further study.
Although recent work is showing m. F. Aria and M. Ch. Karimondzaya needs increased protection. One concern for conservation is that their populations need to be monitored in areas where M. fascicularis is not endemic and must be managed to reduce their impact on local flora and fauna.
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