Macaca nigra or the black macaque is a species of macaque also named as a black ape, Celebes crested macaque, Celebes ape, Celebes macaque, crested black macaque, Sulawesi crested black macaque, Sulawesi macaque.
Taxonomy of Black macaque
Species: M. nigra
Other names of Macaca nigra or the black macaque: cynopithèque nègre or macaque des célèbes (French); macaca negra (Spanish); celebesmakak, svart sulawesimakak, or svartapa (Swedish)
Although Macaca nigra or the black macaque is a monkey, it is sometimes mistakenly referred to as apes because of its highly cut tails.
Usually one of the best ways to differentiate between a monkey and a monkey is to look for the presence of a tail, but with crested black macaques, it is difficult because they have a difficult to see the smaller tail.
Macaca nigra or the black macaque has full blackface and body, their hair is long, backward and the wards form a pointed crest pointing upwards and they have prominent, boneless cheek ridges and a shelf-like brave bone. They have a short tail that is about 20 mm (.79 in) long.
Crested black macaques are almost twice the size of wives: men measure between 520 and 570 mm (1.71 and 1.87 feet) and the average weight is 9.9 kg (21.8 lbs), while wives measure 445 to 570 mm (1.46) to 1.8. Feet) and weighs only 5.5 kg (12.1 lbs), on average.
In addition to the larger size of the body, the male crest black macaques have larger canine teeth than females.
Macaca nigra or the black macaque uses it in aggressive combat with other men when competing for access to women, and during intergroup fighting while protecting food companies. Crested black macaques are semi-ground, with time spent running around the ground and through trees.
Current Range Maps (IUCN Redlist):
Wild crested black macaques are only found on two islands in Indonesia. They are confined to the northeastern tip of Sulawesi, and an island about 5 miles from Sulawesi, Pulau Bakan, where they introduced people in 1867.
Although these populations have been isolated geographically for about a year and a half, they exhibit similar morphological, ecological, and behavioral patterns. In Sulawesi, they are found in the Tankoko Batuyangs-Dua Sudara, Gunung Ambang, and Gunung Manambonombo nature archives, as well as in the Bunaken Marine National Park.
The majority of the population is found in Tangkok and most of the field studies have been conducted here. Research on weaving has been conducted in the Gunung Sibella Nature Reserve.
Until recently there were several field research studies conducted on crested black macaques in the wild, and as a result, very little published information on behavior, ecology, social organization, and reproduction was available.
This pattern has reversed in recent years, and some researchers working with this species include Timothy O’Brien, Margaret Kinnard, and Barry Rosenbaum.
The northern peninsula of Sulawesi is highly seasonal and is characterized by its volcanic geography.
Tangkoko covers a height of up to 5 meters (6 feet) above sea level. Within the reserve, landscape patterns include severely turbulent and burnt zones, abandoned reconstruction gardens, secondary forests, and primary forests.
Throughout the Sulawesi and Bacan crest, crest black mammals live in habitat-infested areas, from small orchards to clear-cut areas (Rosenbaum et al. 1998b).
The severity of habitat dysfunction changes the composition of the flower in the landscape, and macaques are found at different densities according to turbulence.
Annual rainfall in the region is between 1550 and 2400 mm (3.77 and 7.87 feet), with most rainfall occurring in October and May.
Temperatures remain fairly constant throughout the year, from the coldest and warmest places of the year to 25.7 degrees Celsius (5 degrees Fahrenheit), to 0.5 degrees Celsius (5 degrees Fahrenheit).
The temperature and climate of the beacon are similar to that of the plant communities of the Sunoosi and Bacan regions, and the lowlands in the higher elevations are similar to the montane rainforest from the tropical forests.
Gunung Sibella, a nature reserve where crest black macaques are studied, is located at an altitude of 2110 meters (6922 feet)
Macaca nigra or the black macaque lives is lowland and montane primary forests, mangrove, cultivated fields surrounded by primary and secondary forests, actively forested and densely populated habitat and agricultural areas.
Although they are found in actively logged forests, they are found in low concentrations in the highly disturbed areas.
Crest Black Makers spend their days traveling, feeding, strolling, socializing and resting. Of these activities, they spend 59% of their time traveling, foraging and feeding, and spending the rest of their day resting and socializing.
Socialization occurs in the morning and in the afternoon, and rest takes place in the middle to midday. Traveling, feeding and foraging are evenly distributed throughout the day.
These are essentially terrestrial, spending more than 60% of their day on the ground burning and socializing.
Crest Black macaques mainly spend about 5% of their time on fruit feeding, but they consume a variety of foods including seeds, leaves, flowers, batches, herbs, grass seeds, fungi, bird eggs, birds and small vertebrates, such as ticks and frogs.
They are not seen above 1250 m (4101 ft) and most observations occur below 700 m (2296 ft). Elevation restrictions are probably associated with lower levels of fruit abundance at the upper end of the pod. In Tanko, they do not rise above 1100 m (3608 feet).
In TankCo, the group size varies between 27 and 97, and the groups overlap the home ranges. The average monthly home range size is 47৪ to 3km (.18 to 1.34m) and the daily average path length is 25m (1.5m) but depends on access to the primary forest, white-crested black macaques.
Having access to primary forests, they spend very little time traveling, probably due to the high quality of habitat in the area and the abundance of fruits. Furthermore, crest black macaques do not travel as much as each day during periods of maximum fruit abundance.
The size of the bacon group is, on average, smaller with 20 groups (Rosenbaum et al. 1998a). The population density in Tangco is about 30 people per square kilometer (19 per square mile), although in the unprotected areas of Sulawesi they are much lower in beak per square kilometer (3 per square mile), with the density of crested black macaques in the primary forest area. (106 per square mile) is higher than animals, but the concentrations in the logged forest are low enough, per square Ilomitare 133 (per square 82).
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