Black handed spider monkey, scientific name Ateles geoffroyi, also referred to as the Geoffroy’s spider monkey or the Central American spider monkey is a species of spider monkey, a sort of New World monkey, from Central America, components of Mexico and presumably a small portion of Colombia.
Black handed spider monkey facts
In this article, I am going to talk about black handed spider monkey facts, habitat, diet, fun facts, endangered, population, adaptations, sounds, superfamily, etc.
There are at the very least 5 subspecies. Some primatologists classify the black-headed spider monkey (A. fusciceps), present in Panama, Colombia, and Ecuador as the identical species as Geoffroy’s spider monkey.
Black handed spider monkey is likely one of the largest New World monkeys, typically weighing as a lot as 9 kg (20 lb).
Its arms are considerably longer than its legs, and its prehensile tail can help the complete weight of the monkey and is used as an additional limb.
Fingers of the black handed spider monkey have solely a vestigial thumb, however lengthy, sturdy, hook-like fingers. These variations permit the monkey to maneuver by swinging by its arms beneath the tree branches.
Geoffroy’s spider monkey lives in fission-fusion societies that comprise between 20 and 42 members.
Diet of the black handed spider monkey consists primarily of ripe fruit and it requires massive tracts of forest to outlive.
Because of habitat loss, searching, and seize for pet commerce, it’s thought of to be endangered by the IUCN.
Black handed spider monkey Look
The fur on the higher body, arms, and toes of black-handed spider monkeys is darkish brown or black.
Their faces typically have a pale mask of colorless pores and skin. Not like most different primates, their thumb is nearly non-existent.
They have got a protracted prehensile tail with a ‘palm-like’ pad of naked pores and skin on the finish.
Black handed spider monkey Measurement, Weight, and Lifespan
The Geoffroy’s spider monkey is likely one of the largest of the New World monkeys, with the male of the species being barely bigger than his feminine counterpart.
The tails of each man and woman are longer than their respective bodies, and their arms are longer than their legs.
Head-to-body size in male Geoffroy’s spider monkeys ranges from 1.3 to 2 ft (39 to 63 cm), with a weight between 16 and 20 lbs (7.4 to 9 kg). The size of the male’s tail ranges from 2.3 to 2.8 ft (70 to 86 cm).
Head-to-body size in feminine Geoffroy’s spider monkeys ranges from 1 to 1.5 ft (31 to 45 cm), with a weight between 13 and 18 lbs (6 to 8 kg). The size of the feminine’s tail ranges from 2.1 to 2.5 ft (64 to 75 cm).
Most life span within the wild is unknown. In captivity, the Geoffroy’s spider monkey can reside from 33 to 47 years.
Distribution and habitat
The vary of this species extends over a lot of Central America, encompassing Panama, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Belize, and the south and far of the jap portion of Mexico.
Observations by native folks point out the southernmost subspecies, the hooded spider monkey, A. g. grisescens, might also happen within the portion of Colombia close to the Panama border.
In western Colombia and northeast Panama, it’s changed by the black-headed spider monkey, A. fusciceps, which is taken into account by some primatologists to be a subspecies of Geoffroy’s spider monkey.
Geoffroy’s spider monkey lives in numerous sorts of the forest, together with rainforest, semideciduous, and mangrove forests.
Larger densities of Geoffroy’s spider monkeys are typically present in areas containing evergreen forest.
Black handed spider monkey description
Geoffroy’s spider monkey is likely one of the largest New World monkeys. Its size measures between 30 and 63 cm (12 and 25 in) and it weighs between 6 and 9 kg (13 and 20 lb).
The tail is longer than the body at between 63 and 85 cm (25 and 33 in). Women and men are roughly identical dimensions.
Its physique shade varies by subspecies and inhabitants and could be buff, reddish, rust, brown, or black.
The fingers and toes are darkish or black. The face often has pale masks and naked pores and skin across the eyes and muzzle.
Its legs and arms are lengthy and slim. The arms are about 25% longer than the legs. The thumb is simply vestigial, however, the fingers are lengthy and powerful, making the fingers hook-like.
The lengthy arms and hook-like fingers permit Geoffroy’s spider monkey to brachiate, that’s, swing by its arms beneath the tree branches.
The prehensile tail may be very sturdy and has a palm-like pad on the finish. The tail acts as an additional limb, and is used for locomotion, in addition, to pick fruits and to scoop water from holes in timber.
Geoffroy’s spider monkey can help its weight suspended by its tail and infrequently does so when feeding.
The clitoris of feminine Geoffroy’s spider monkeys is massive and protrudes, trying like a penis.
This organ, known as a pendulous clitoris due to the best way it dangles externally, is definitely bigger than the male flaccid penis. Consequently, females are generally mistaken for males by human observers.
The enlarged clitoris is believed to help males in figuring out sexual receptiveness, permitting them to touch the clitoris and scent their fingers to choose up chemical or olfactory cues to the feminine’s reproductive standing.
Black handed spider monkey Habits
Geoffroy’s spider monkey is arboreal and diurnal, and principally inhabits the higher portion of the forest.
Nonetheless, it involves the bottom extra often than different spider monkey species.
It lives in fission-fusion societies, massive teams with a typical 20 to 42 members, which cut up into smaller subgroups to forage throughout the day.
Subgroups sometimes quantity two to 6 members, and generally the subgroups stay separate from the principle group even by the evening.
Geoffroy’s spider monkey forages over massive tracts of forest in quest of meals. Residence ranges for teams can exceed 900 hectares (2,200 acres).
Monkeys can vary about 2,000 meters (6,600 ft) every day.
Males are likely to cowl a bigger day vary than females, and dominant people are likely to have bigger day ranges.
Geoffroy’s spider monkey generally rubs a combination of saliva and floor lime tree Citrus aurantifolia leaves on its fur.
That is believed to behave as an insect repellent. In some places, Geoffroy’s spider monkey interacts with the white-headed capuchin. These interactions can embody mutual grooming.
Along with strolling or operating on 4 limbs and climbing, Geoffroy’s spider monkey makes use of a number of types of suspensory locomotion.
Brachiation, or swinging from the arms with help from the prehensile tail, is the most typical type of suspensory locomotion.
Much less widespread varieties embody swinging whereas suspended by the tail and strolling on 4 limbs beneath a department.
Research has indicated the Geoffroy’s spider monkey makes use of suspensory locomotion much less often than different spider monkey species.
The commonest technique utilized by spider monkeys to cross between timber is “bridging”, by which the monkey grasps for a department from the brand new tree and pulls it in the direction of itself so it will probably climb onto it.
Airborne leaps are used when crucial, and sure populations of Geoffroy’s spider monkey, particularly in Panama, are recognized to leap between timber extra often than different populations.
When not shifting, Geoffroy’s spider monkey makes use of not solely supported postures, akin to sitting or standing, but in addition, suspended postures by which it hangs from a department.
Suspended postures all the time embody help from the tail, and generally, the monkey hangs by its tail alone.
In different instances, it hangs by the tail and by a number of limbs concurrently.
Research has indicated at the very least some Geoffroy’s spider monkey populations use suspended postures much less often when feeding than different spider monkey species.
Each day Life and Group Dynamics
Extremely social animals, Geoffroy’s spider monkeys reside in multi-male, multi-female teams averaging 30 people, though teams of as much as 100 have been reported.
Group dimension varies with habitat kind and relies largely on the obtainable meal sources in space.
Geoffroy’s spider monkeys are diurnal, which merely put implies that they’re most lively throughout the daylight.
They spend this time within the forest cover foraging for meals. Mornings are spent gorging themselves, whereas afternoons are reserved for relaxation.
For the needs of foraging, significantly when meals are troublesome to search out, bigger teams will cut up into smaller subgroups—culinary search committees—and often regroup within the night.
Nonetheless, for teams as massive as 100, the complete group would possibly come collectively for only some weeks of every 12 months.
This phenomenon of splitting and merging for an outlined function is called “fission-fusion,” and Geoffroy’s spider monkeys inhabit fission-fusion societies.
Geoffroy’s spider monkeys forage over massive tracts of forest in quest of meals.
Residence ranges for teams can exceed 2,200 acres (900 hectares), and the monkeys can cowl 6,600 ft (2,000 meters) every day.
Black handed spider monkey Communication
Geoffroy’s monkeys use a repertoire of sounds and postures to speak. “Barks” are alarm calls used to suggest a menace, whereas whinnies and screams are misery calls typically made when separated from each other.
Whinnies are maybe probably the most versatile vocalization, additionally used to alert others within the group to a meal supply, to keep up contact with each other whereas foraging, and to name out at daybreak and nightfall.
As a result of every monkey emits a singular sound, different monkeys within the group are in a position to acknowledge each other by vocal communication.
Postures of the black handed spider monkey embody a curled tail or arched again, used as a menacing show in the direction of different spider monkeys.
A head shake is used both as a menace or an invite to play. Shaking branches or swaying arms are used to warn the group of impending hazards.
For example, when approached by people, black handed spider monkeys bark, throw branches, shake tree limbs, and leap up and down.
Black handed spider monkey Intelligence
Sounds produced by Geoffroy’s spider monkey include barks, whinnies, squeals, squeaks, and screams.
Barks are sometimes alarm calls. Whinnies and screams can be utilized as misery calls, and are additionally made at daybreak and at nightfall.
Every monkey makes a singular sound, which can permit monkeys to acknowledge one another by vocal communication alone.
A number of researchers have investigated the usage of whinnies, which include between two and 12 fast will increase and reduces in pitch, in additional element.
This analysis has indicated one extra function of whinnies is to name different group members to a meal supply.
Different functions of whinnies urged by this analysis have included sustaining vocal contact with different group members whereas touring and distinguishing between group members and members of different teams.
Geoffroy’s spider monkey makes use of a number of types of nonvocal communication. A curled tail or arched again can be utilized as a menacing show in the direction of different spider monkeys.
A head shake is used both as a menace or an invite to play. Shaking branches or swaying arms is used as a warning of hazard to the group.
Though they don’t use instruments, spider monkeys, together with Geoffroy’s spider monkey, are thought to be clever primates.
An examination carried out in 2007 concluded they have been the third most clever nonhuman primate, behind solely orangutans and chimpanzees, and forward of gorillas and all different monkeys.
This psychological capability could also be an adaptation to spider monkeys’ frugivorous diets, which require them to have the ability to establish and memorize many several types of meals and their places.
Black handed spider monkey Diet
Black-handed spider monkeys eat fruits, nuts leaves, and seeds. Geoffroy’s spider monkey eats principally fruit – ideally ripe and fleshy –
and spends 70% to 80% of its feeding time-consuming fruit. Leaves make up a lot of the remainder of its weight-reduction plan.
Younger leaves are particularly essential to offer the protein that may be missing in fruit. Different components of its weight-reduction plan embody flowers, bark, buds, honey, seeds, and buds.
Along with offering a lot of the monkey’s dietary wants, fruit and leaves present a lot of its water necessities.
Like different spider monkeys, Geoffroy’s spider monkey drinks water from tree holes and bromeliads in timber, however, in contrast to different spider monkeys, it additionally drinks from terrestrial water sources.
Giant cats – jaguars and pumas – look like the one important grownup spider monkey predators, aside from people.
Eagles and huge snakes are additionally potential predators.
Nonetheless, the predation of Geoffroy’s spider monkey has not been noticed by researchers.
Black handed spider monkey Reproduction
Females bear younger each two to 4 years. Amongst males, mating is just not restricted to solely dominant people.
In a single examination at Barro Colorado Island, all males within the group have been noticed mating at the very least as soon as over a one-year interval.
Nonetheless, dominant males seem to mate extra typically than low-ranking males.
It’s unknown whether or not male dominance is correlated with larger success in fathering offspring.
Geoffroy’s spider monkeys mate in a sitting place, each dealing with the identical route, with the male seated behind the feminine and his arms, wrapped around her chest and legs wrapped around her waist.
This embrace can final between eight and 22 minutes.
Previous to mating, the female and male each separate themselves from the remainder of the group, so they’re alone aside from any of the feminine’s juvenile offspring.
The gestational interval is about 7.5 months, after which a single younger is usually born, though twins generally happen.
The younger is darkish in the shade till they start taking up the grownup coloration at the age of 5 months.
They’re carried on their moms’ chests for the primary month and a half to 2 months, at which level they will journey on their backs.
They nurse till they’re about one 12 months previous, however, start consuming strong meals and shifting independently at about three months.
Even once they transfer independently, they can’t all the time cross gaps within the cover that adults can handle.
To assist them, a grownup will stretch throughout the hole, forming a bridge over which the younger can cross.
Females develop into sexually mature at about 4 years, and males at about 5 years.
Upon reaching sexual maturity, females depart their natal group, however, males don’t. Consequently, the males within the teams are sometimes associated, whereas the females usually are not.
This will likely assist clarify why male Geoffroy’s spider monkeys kind sturdy bonds. Most life span within the wild is unknown.
In captivity, Geoffroy’s spider monkey can reside at the very least 33 years.
The foremost menace to black-handed spider monkeys is habitat lack of forests. Secondary issues are unlawful pet commerce and being hunted for his or her meat.
Like all forest-dwelling primates, Geoffroy’s spider monkeys play an essential function as seed dispersers.
Foraging exercise additionally stimulates the expansion of timber, since further foliage, branches, and different natural matter that’s dropped from the cover supplies vitamins to the soil.
Their feces are wealthy in nitrogen and phosphorus as properly.
Black handed spider monkey Conservation standing
Geoffroy’s spider monkey is listed as “Endangered” by the IUCN, principally because of habitat loss.
It requires massive tracts of the main forest to outlive, so it’s weak to deforestation and is usually hunted by people and captured for the pet commerce.
Due to its low reproductive turnover, it can’t rapidly replenish its numbers when affected by these occasions.
Consequently, Geoffroy’s spider monkey has disappeared from some areas the place it was as soon as widespread. Three subspecies are critically endangered.
Black handed spider monkey was extirpated on Barro Colorado Island in Panama. Searching had eradicated the native inhabitants there by 1912.
Nonetheless, between 1959 and 1966, an effort was made to reintroduce the species to Barro Colorado.
Not less than 18 black handed spider monkeys have been reintroduced, however solely 5, one male and 4 females, survived the reintroduction. This small group has thrived, and the island inhabitants had grown to 28 monkeys by 2003.
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