The Bengal Slow Loris, scientific name, Nycticebus bengalensis or the Northern Slow Loris is the Stripesrahine Primate and the geographical range of the slow loris species in the Indian subcontinent and the Indochina is larger than the other Slow Loris species. Considered as a subspecies of the Sunda Slow Loris (N. caucang) until 2001, phylogenetic analysis shows that the Bengal Slow Loris is most closely associated with the Sunda Slow Loris.
However, some individuals of both species have mitochondrial DNA sequences that are similar to other species, due to intraggressive hybridization. It is the largest species of slow loris, weighing from 26 to 38 centimeters (10 to 15 inches) from head to tail and weighing between 1 and 2.1 kg (2.2 and 5.2 lb).
Like other slow loris, it also has a wet nose (rhinarium), a round head, flat face, big eyes, small ears, an investigative tail, and thick, fur fur. It is chemically different from other slow loris species extracted from its brachial gland (an odorous gland in its arm) and can be used to communicate information about sex, age, health and social status.
The Bengal Slow Loris is nocturnal and arboreal, occurring in both evergreen and thin forests. It prefers precipitation with dense canopy, and its presence in its native habitat indicates a healthy ecosystem. It is a hunting item for spreading and pollinating a seed, as well as eating meat.
Its diet primarily contains fruits but also contains insects, plant gum, snails and small spines. In winter it depends on the tree exudate such as sap and tree gum. The species lives in small families, identifies its territory with urine and sleeps during the day by crouching in dense vegetation or tree holes.
It is a seasonal breeder, reproduces once every 12-18 months and usually gives birth to a single. For the first three months, mothers carry their offspring, which reach sexual maturity in about 20 months. Bengal slow loris can survive up to 20 years.
The species has been listed on the IUCN Red List as “unprotected” and is in danger of extinction due to the increasing demand for foreign pet commerce and traditional herbal medicines. It is one of the most common animals sold in the local cattle market.
In Traditional Tahitian treatment, it is used primarily by the rich to middle class, women in the city after delivery, but also for the treatment of stomach problems, broken bones and sexually transmitted diseases. It is also hunted for food and the habitat is reduced. Wild populations have declined drastically and are locally extinct in several areas.
It is found in many protected areas throughout its range, but it does not protect them from severe poaching and illegal logging. Critical conservation issues for this species include enhancing protection measures, strict enforcement of wildlife conservation laws, and increasing linkages between fragmented protected areas.
Anatomy and Bodybuilding
Bengal Slow Loris has big eyes, round head and small ears, as shown in this illustration from the mid-19th century.
The Bengal Slow Loris is the largest species of loris, weighing between 1 and 2.1 kg (2.2 to 4.6 lb) and from head to tail, measuring between 26 and 38 cm (10 and 15 inches). Its skull is more than 62 mm (2.5 inches) long. It has thick, fur, brown-gray wool on the back and white wool beneath it.
It has a clear dark stripe that runs up to the top of its head but does not extend to the ear. Its arms and hands are almost white. The organs of the pelvis vary in color from brown to almost white, and the legs are always pale. Molting can cause in-tune changes in the color of the dorsal surface. Like other slow loris, its tail is also inquisitive and its head is round and short.
It is a rhinarium (moist, naked surface around the nose) and a wide, flat face with large eyes. Its eyes reflect a bright orange eye glitter.
On its first leg, the second number is smaller than the rest; The large toe of its foot contrasts with other toes, which increases its gripping power. On the eastern foot it has a curved “toilet-nail” on the second foot that the animal uses for scratching and grooming, while the other nails are straight.
Besides being smaller than the Bengal slow loris, the sympathetic sunda slow loris are also different in color: it has no pale area of head, nape and shoulders, and its overall color is a crisp or golden-brown.
Pygmy Slow Loris (N. pygmyus) is less than 55 mm (2.2 in) in length. It also lacks the dark dorsal stripe of the slow loris of Bengal, has dark brown fur and long ears.
Bengal slow loris will bark the bark of the shrubs Myrobala, an important food source – especially during the winter season.
Bengal’s preferred habitat is spread over tropical and sub-tropical regions, and includes forests and evergreen and semi-evergreen rainfall with constant, dense canopy. It is also found in the bamboo groove.
It prefers habitats with larger diameters, taller trees with a larger crown depth (defined as the length along the main axis from the tip of the tree to the base of the crown); These regions are generally associated with greater dietary intake and the risk of predation is reduced Because of its predominance for dense forests, it serves as a good indicator of ecosystem health.
The species acts as a major seed dispersal and pollinator, as well as a number of carnivorous prey items. The Bengal Slow Loris feeds on the exodate of plants such as sap, gardener, raisin and latex, especially from the Fawbasi family.
Even if the species does not have clipped nails, it will remove the plant, actively breaking its surface; This behavior is also achieved by excluding bark holes similar to marmoset and prickly lemurs. Winter catering consists almost entirely of plant exudates.
Myrobala, a thin tree common in Southeast Asia, is a preferred source for expatriates, but it has also been found to be a plant carrier from several families: Moraceae (Artocarpus), Magnoliasia (Mongolia), Fabaceae (Acacia, Bauhinia), Lecithidaceae (Caria arborea), and Sterculiaceae (Terrospermum). Although it will feed large insects (such as catechids and crickets), gums, snails, small birds and reptiles, it is largely the result of the flowering plant genus Bauhinia liana, a commonly used food source.
An Nocturnal Beast, Bengal Slow Loris has excellent night vision, developed by Tapitum lucidum – a layer of eye tissue that reflects visible light through the retina. It sleeps during the day, huddling in a ball in dense vegetation or tree holes. Men and women identify their territory with their urine. The species lives in small family groups. Animals can practice social grooming.
Bengal Slow Loris Pygmy is not a seasonal breeder unlike loris. The women in the Astros cycle attract men with loud shis. The female reproduces every 12-18 months and has a six-month gestation. Since they are not seasonal breeders, women can become pregnant when their babies are about months old, and it is possible for wives to have two children each year.
Women usually give birth to a single child, although twins rarely occur. This is different from the sympatric pygmy sloe loris, who usually have twins when the mother carries her young about three months before independence, though they may be temporarily left in the branches while the mother searches for food. Sexual maturity reaches about 20 months of age. The species is known to survive up to 20 years.
The species has the largest geographical range of all the slow loris species and is endemic to northeast India, Bangladesh and Indochina (Cambodia, Laos, Burma, Vietnam, South China and Thailand). It is the only nocturnal primate found in northeastern India, which includes Assam, Mizoram, Nagaland, Meghalaya, Manipur and Tripura.
It is found in parts of Yunnan and southwest Guangxi, China, and has been recorded in Bangladesh’s Chittagong Hill Tracts. It is known from 24 protected areas in Vietnam and distributed to most parts of Thailand. In Burma, it has been found in Bhamo, Seaboam, Kindat, Chin Hills, Pathine, Thangadang and Pegu; The population of Laos is recorded in the northern, central and southern parts of the country.
The Bengal Slow Loris sympathizes with the Pygmy slow loris in China, Vietnam, and Laos in the southeast (sharing its range). The Bengal Slow Loris is also sympathetic to the Sunda slow loris in the southern peninsula of Thailand. In 2001, Groves reported the existence of hybrids between these two species in the region.
Listed on the IUCN Red List as “Data Deficit” as of May 25, The Bengal Slow Loris was evaluated as “unprotected” by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) at 20 – just enough field data based on habitat loss due to lack of decision.
It is found in numerous protected areas within its range; But conservation measures and illegal logging are plentiful and conservation measures are not specific to any species.
The species will be found in at least 5 protected areas in northeast India, 4 conservation areas in Laos and 24 protected areas in Vietnam. It is found in the Lauachara National Park in Bangladesh, and its 5% range protected species in China was listed on the Wildlife Conservation Act of India 2, and in June 2007, it was transferred to the CITES Appendix A along with other slow lorry species, Which prohibits international commercial trade.
The most serious threats to the species are the wildlife trade (trapping for foreign pets and the use of traditional tropical medicine) and woodland. Waterlogging and burned agriculture destroys its habitat and road construction is another factor in its decline.
As the population of the nearby urban population increased, the victim proved to be the deadliest. Increasing protection measures, enforcing current wildlife protection laws, and linking between protected areas are important to ensure the survival of this species.
The breed is commonly sold as a pet and in zoos throughout Southeast Asia. In Cambodia, it was seen as one of the most common mammals found in shops and stalls on the 21st of 2006, found in hundreds and sold for US $ 0.85 to US $ 6.25.
In the same year, it was sold in the Chinese market (Mingla County in Yunnan Province) and in Thailand for $ 70 US $ 2.50 to US $ 6.30. Bengal Slow Loris is used in traditional medicine in all these countries, is sold in Vietnam for US $ 15 and is also consumed in Vietnam.
The animal is mainly used to prepare treatment for women for the treatment of childbirth, stomach problems, wounds and broken bones and sexual diseases. The primary users are middle-class women in urban areas.
Trends in habitat and population
Throughout its geographical range, slow loris are declining drastically. Their habitat is severely depleted and the growing human population will add to the increasing stress. In countries such as Bangladesh, only 9% of the main forest was present in 2000.
In northeastern Cambodia, forests are being cleared at an increasing rate of% of natural forests between 9 and 20 years, Myanmar and Thailand 14% and 26% of their natural forests, respectively.
Lost% s. In Vietnam, only 30% of the mainland remains due to forest degradation resulting from the Vietnam War, and only 10% of it is enclosed by fungal forests. Habitat destruction remains widespread, and within its boundaries all the slow lorry population has declined significantly.
The population has been declared locally extinct in parts of South Korea Nam Province and parts of the highlands, and is also expected in the nature reserve of San Thanh and Kon Cha Rong.
In India, dense forest cover has reduced as much as 55% in some regions and is rapidly disappearing. By early 1997, the Indo-China region had gradually lost 75% of its natural habitat for loris. In 1992, the population size was estimated on the basis of available housing between 16,000 and 17,000 persons;
However, recent publications say that there are very few people due to the geographic range being reduced. Bengal slow loris may be confined to a few isolated populations and are in serious danger of becoming extinct locally in parts of Assam and Meghalaya. In Arunachal Pradesh, its population is declining and threatening.
According to a survey published on 23 Assam, the population density in Assam, India has been estimated at between 1.5 and 1.5 people per kilometer.
A study of Tripura’s wildlife sanctuary and Sipahizola wildlife sanctuary in Tripura, 2007, found 2.22 persons / km per month, with nine of the seven landmarks occurring at 1.71 km2 (0.66 square miles) and most animals 8-15 meters (26- 24 feet) in height and close to the interior of the wet, thin forest. In the 26th, the species abundance was measured at Assam’s Gibbon Wildlife Sanctuary at 0.18 persons / km.
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