The Assam macaque or Assamese macaque, scientific name Macaca assamensis is a macaque of the family of Old World Monkeys native to South and Southeast Asia. For 24 years, the species has been listed by the IUCN as a “near threatened”, as Assam macaque has been significantly reduced due to hunting, habitat degradation, and fragmentation.
Assam macaque has a yellowish-brown to the dark brown palate. The skin on the face is dark brown to purple.
The head of the cheek has a dark shaft of hair that is pointed back toward the ear. The hair on the crown is split in the middle.
Shoulders, heads, and arms have a lighter color than the stylish look. The tail is well-haired and short.
The head-to-body length measures 51 to 73.5 cm (20.1 to 28.9 inches) and the tail is 15 to 30 cm (5.9 to 11.8 inches) long. Adults weigh 5 to 10 kg (11 to 22 pounds).
Distribution and Accommodation
Macaca asmensis “Nepalese population” is endemic to Nepal and is probably indistinguishable from the two recognized subspecies, which occupy regions southeast and east of the range of M. asamensis.
There is a gap in northeast India between the pockets of the two major populations, especially in middle Bhutan and the southern side of the Brahmaputra river; the eastern course of its upper course marks the division between two recognized subspecies:
East Assamese Makak, m. Osmosis is seen in northeastern India, Bhutan, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim, and Tripura, through Myanmar-Thailand border and Chongkong up to Tibet via Myanmar-Thailand border.
In Guangxi, Guizhou, Tibet and Yunnan provinces of southwestern China, Thatsang in northern Laos and Hoi Juan provinces in North Vietnam;
West Assamese Makak, m. Pelops is found in northern Nepal from Uttar Pradesh, Sikkim, Assam, and north India to West Bengal, Central Bhutan and Sundarbans, Bangladesh.
During the survey in Nepal 1976, 1978 and, in Nepal, Assam macaque has been found to distribute insects on rivers in tropical and sub-tropical forests at an altitude of about 200 to 1,800 m (660 to 5,910 ft).
Assam macaque is clearly absent from the west side of the Kaligandaki River. In India, they live in tropical and sub-tropical semicircular forests, dry slums and montane forests up to an elevation of 4,000 meters (13,000 feet) above sea level.
They usually live in hilly areas up to 1.8 meters (5,7 feet), but to the east of the wetlands, they may even appear in lowland and denser regions that reach only this altitude.
In Laos and Vietnam, Assam macaque prefers high altitudes, usually over 500 meters (1,600 feet). These occur at much lower altitudes in the forest in the limestone karst.
Ecology and behavior
Assam macaque is both daily and occasionally both arboreal and terrestrial. They are omnivorous and feed on fruits, leaves, continuous and cereal. In the Namdafa National Park in Arunachal Pradesh, there were 5 teams recorded in 202 of which there were 20.
The population density of a group was 1 km 2 (0.39 sq mi) and the average group size was 13.93 people. During a survey conducted in Langtang National Park, Nepal in 2007, a total of 213 Assamese macaques were encountered in 9 groups in the 5 km (5 sq mi) survey area.
The size of the Assam macaque troops varies between 13 and 35, with an average troop number of 23.66 men, and comprises 31% of adult females, 16% of adult males, and their young age.
They like maize jaggery, followed by potato tubers, but raid wheat, shrapnel, and betel fields.
Threats to the habitat of this species include selective logging and various types of anthropological development and activities, hunting and trapping for alien invaders, sports, medicine, food, and pet trade. Furthermore, hybridization with adjacent species is a threat to some populations.
It is legally protected in all countries of the incident. For the population in India, the Assam macaque species is listed under the second schedule of the first part of the Indian Wildlife Act.
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