The mountain gorilla habitat is confined to protected national parks in two regions of Africa. A group of gorillas live in Uganda’s Bivindi Fortress National Park. The other group is spread over three national parks in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Uganda and the Birungas Highlands in Rwanda.
The mountain gorilla is listed as endangered in the IUCN Red List since the total population is estimated to be comprised of 5 people in the two populations within the 20 population. One population lives in Uganda’s Bivindi Fortress National Park and the other three live in the Birunga Mountains of adjacent national parks, Magahinga Gorilla National Park in Uganda, Vulcanos National Park situated in Rwanda as well as the Birunga National Park which is owned by the Democratic Republic of Congo.
Mountain gorillas are members of the gorilla family’s hair. They need long hair to keep warm at high-temperature. Gorillas are known for nasal congestion – known as nasal markings – unique and often used by human researchers.
Mountain gorillas have less than 90 in the world and can only live in the wild.
In the dense forests of Central and West Africa, soldiers find plenty of food for their vegetarian diet which includes roots of trees and bushes, shoots of tender leaves, seasonal fruits, wild celery as well as bark and decoration of trees as a whole.
Mountain Gorilla has been classified as critically endangered since 1996 before which, mountain gorillas were only endangered until 1986-1996. Among the contributors to their decline in numbers are habitat loss, hunting, oil and gas exploration, war and instability, disease and people.
Mountain gorillas are the most severely endangered, with an estimated population of about 1 in the wild and nothing in the zoo. Threats to the survival of the gorilla include habitat destruction and victimization of the bushmeat business.
As of May 20, mountain guerrillas were listed as critically endangered in the IUCN Red List and depended on survival efforts. In 2018, mountain gorillas were redistributed as endangered after a survey found that the population increased from about 80% in 2000 to nearly 1,000%.
Mountain gorilla fur, often thicker and taller than other gorilla species, enables them to survive in cooler temperatures. The gorilla can be distinguished by the unique nose print of each person. The average weight of men is 5 kg (5 lbs) in length, at 16৮ cm (in 66 inches), almost twice the weight of women, with an average weight of 100 kg (220 lbs) and 140 cm (55). These subspecies are smaller than the eastern lowland gorillas, smaller than the other subspecies of eastern gorillas.
Adult males give their heads a more conical shape, making them more pronounced at the very top and back of the skull. These crests anchor the strong temporalis muscles, which attach to the lower jaw (mandible). Like all gorillas, they have dark brown eyes framed with a black ring around the iris. Adult males are called silverbacks because a saddle of gray or silver hair develops with age on their backs.
The hairs on their backs are shorter than other parts of the body, and their arm hairs are much longer. The longest silverback ever recorded was 2.7 meters (8 feet 10 inches) with an arm span of 1.7 meters (6 feet 5 inches), the Alimongongo shot of North Kivu in May 5, at 1.5 meters (f feet in inches) and 219 kg ( 483 lb) A chest of weight. The other person shot in the 7th has an unidentified record, which was 2.26 meters. (6 feet 9 inches) and weighs 218.6 kg (482 lbs). The highest silverback ever recorded was a 1.83m (6ft 0 inch) shot in Cameroon’s Ambam, weighing in at 267kg (589 lbs).
Mountain gorillas are primarily earthy and quadrangular. However, if the branches can carry its weight, it will climb to fruitful trees and it is capable of running up to 6 meters (20 feet) bilaterally. Like all other sizes except humans, its arm is longer than the legs, driven by knuckles (similar to ordinary chimpanzees, but different to bonobo and both species), supporting its weight on the back of its curved fingers rather than the palm of its hand.
The mountain gorillas are active daily, between 9:00 am and 00:00 pm active. Many of these hours are spent eating large amounts of food because of the large amount of food needed. It is foraging in the morning, resting in the deep mornings and at midnight, and again in the afternoon before resting at night. Each gorilla creates a nest for sleeping from the plants around, creating a new one each evening. Only babies sleep in the same home as their mothers. In the morning and at dawn, when the sun rises, they leave their places of sleep, except winter and cloud; Then they often stay in their home longer.
The mountain gorilla Albertin Rift resides between the montane cloud forests and the Virunga volcano, with altitudes ranging from 2,253,3 meters (2,5-4,3 feet). Most are found in three opals of dormant volcanoes: Karisimbi, Mikeno, and Visok. The vegetation is very dense at the bottom of the mountain, more sparse at higher altitudes, and the forests that are mountain gorillas are often cloudy, misty and cool.
Mountain gorillas are mainly herbivores; Most of these diets comprise the leaves, shoots and stems (85.8%) of 142 plant species. It feeds on bark (6.9%), roots (3.3%), flowers (2.3%), and fruits (1.7%), as well as small invertebrates. (0.1%). Adult males can eat up to 34 kg (75 lb) of plants a day, and females can eat up to 18 kilograms (40 lb) more.
The size of the home range (the area used by one group of gorillas a year) is influenced by the availability of food sources and usually includes several plant zones. George Schachler identifies ten distinct zones, including: Bamboo forests at 2,200-22,800 meters (7,200-9,200 feet); Hazenia forestland at 2,800–3,400 m (9,200–11,200 ft); And the giant Senecio area is 3,400–4,300 meters (11,200–14,100 feet).
The mountain gorilla spends most of its time in the Hagenia Forest, where gallium trees are found all year round. All parts of this vine are consumed: leaves, stalks, flowers, and berries. It travels to bamboo forests during the months of the year in which new shoots are found and it can climb into sedimentary areas and eat the soft centers of giant senesio trees.
Mountain gorillas are highly social and relatively stable, inhabited by long-term bonds between adult males and females in cohesive groups. Relationships among women are relatively weak. These groups are illegal; The Silverback usually defends his team more than his territory. In the Birunga Mountain Gorillas, the average length of a dominant silverback is 7.7 years.
Population size and growth rate
Conservation efforts have increased the overall population of the mountain gorillas (Gorilla berengei berigi) in Verungas and Beundi. The overall population is now said to be at least 880 people. Three more children – who suffered traumatic injuries, were injured in a trap and / or lost their mother in a brutal murder – are currently under the care of the Senecakeway Center Orphanage in DR Congo.
Mountain gorillas are not usually hunted for bushmeat, but they are often distorted or killed by traps and traps for other animals. They were slaughtered for heads, hands, and feet that were sold to collectors. Children are sold to zoos, researchers, and those who like them as pets.
Abduction of children usually results in the loss of at least one adult, as members of a group will fight to the death to protect their children. Birunga gorillas are particularly susceptible to animal trafficking for the illicit pet trade.
Hunters searching for the child and adolescent specimens, including young gorillas valued at $ 1,000 to $ 5,000 in the black market, will kill and injure other members of the group in the process.
Those who survive in the group often break it down. There was a well-documented case called ‘Taiping 4′. In this scenario, a zoo in Malaysia has received four wild-born babies’ gorillas using false export documents from Nigeria at a cost of US $ 1.5 million.
In the region of political instability, hunting meat is especially threatening. Most African Great Apes survive in the areas of chronic insecurity, where law and order are broken. On January 26, 2007, the killing of a mountain gorilla in Baikanga, Birunga National Park, was a documented case.
This is the most serious threat to the gorilla population. The forests in which the mountain gorillas live are surrounded by fast-growing human settlements. Transfers (slash-and-burn) By farming, pastoral expansion, and logging, villages in the forest area are subdivided and degraded.
By the end of the 1960s, the Rurunga National Park’s Birunga Conservation Area (VCA) was reduced to more than half its original size to support pyrethrum cultivation.
As a result of this, the mountain gorilla population declined dramatically in the mid-1970s. As a result, the forest encloses desolate gorillas in isolated deserts. Some groups may raid crops for food and seek further hostility and revenge.
The impact of habitat loss extends beyond the loss of habitat suitable for gorillas. As the gorilla groups are geographically isolated from one another due to population, the genetic diversity of each group has decreased. Some of the symptoms of jab are already appearing in the Kochi gorilla with webbed hands and feet.
Disease: Despite being located in the national parks of protection, mountain guerrillas are at risk for people of a better-natured nature. Regularly visited groups of tourists and locals are constantly at risk of infection (Lilly et al. Are always there to prevent this.
Harmony with human
Humans have similar genetic makeup and an immune system that has not evolved to fight human diseases, posing a serious threat to conservation. In fact, according to some researchers, infectious diseases (mainly respiratory) are responsible for about 20% of sudden deaths in mountain gorilla populations.
Human-guerrilla interaction declined with the implementation of a successful ecotourism program that saw four sub-populations grow 76% in Rwanda during the period 8-20.
In contrast, the seven most commonly seen sub-populations in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) have decreased by about 20% in just four years (8–26). From this, we can conclude that proper management can reduce the negative effects of ecotourism on gorilla health.
The risk of transmission of the disease is not limited to any human source; The pathogens of livestock and livestock through contaminated water are also of concern.
Studies have shown that waterborne, gastrointestinal parasites such as Cryptosporidium sp., Microsporidia sp., And Giaria sp. Genetically identical when found on livestock, humans, and gorillas; Especially along the borders of Uganda’s Bundi dominated forest.
Tuberculosis is another example of human induced disease; According to Kabagambe et al. About 11% of cattle found in Rwanda suffer from this problem.
Other Recommended Reading
- What Animal has the Closest DNA to Humans? 9 Examples
- Are Chimpanzees Apes? Similarities | Dissimilarities
- Are Chimpanzees Monkeys? Similarities | Dissimilarities
- Genetic Difference Between Humans and Chimps
- 18 Similarities Between Humans and Chimpanzees
- Genetic Similarity Between Humans and Chimpanzees
- Major Differences Between Humans and Chimpanzees
- White-Faced Saki Monkey – Description | Profile | Traits
- Are Humans Originated from Monkeys?
- Are Humans Originated from the Great Apes?
- Chimpanzees are Humans Closest Relatives or Not
- White-Faced Saki – Profile | Description | Facts | Traits
- Black Bearded Saki – Profile | Description | Facts | Traits
- Goeldi’s Marmoset – Profile | Description | Facts | Lifestyle
- Red-handed Howler Monkey – Profile | Sound | Diet
- Robust Capuchin Monkey – Profile | Tool | Lifestyle | Diet
- Northern Muriqui – Profile | Lifestyle | Reproduction
- Mexican Black Howler Monkey – Profile | Facts | Habit
- Bare-eared Squirrel Monkey – Profile | Facts | Description
- Bolivian Red Howler Monkey – Profile | Facts | Habitat
War and civil unrest
Rwanda, Uganda and the Democratic Republic of the Congo have been politically unstable and protested over war and civil unrest for decades. Mountain guerrillas had a negative impact on the habitat and population during war and turmoil.
For example, events such as the 1994 Rwandan genocide will cover almost every 30 years for every 30 years event Increasing aggressive and passive simultaneous human-collisions will result in increased mortality and reduced reproductive success. There are also more direct effects from the conflict.